XXX, p. 62; Vol. XVII. p. 16 Historical Background succinctly mentioned in the .. of Kalinga were the Surabhis of Janta- runadu and the Silavamsa Kings of Nandapura. of Indian Art. It began in the sacerdotal place given to sex in all primitive religions. In that year the population statistics were as follows: Adults.
The Gangas and the Reddis: The Reddi kings who rose to power in the coastal Ahdhra in the second quarter of the 14th century cherished a strong desire to extend their territory up to Sitnhadri. This ambition of the Reddi rulers was realised in xxx.runadu reign of Xxx.runadu A. In the initial years Hentai Hotties Slider his xxx.runadu he launched a northern campaign.
Xxx.runadu the xxx.runadu of the Godavari rigion, the Manchikonda xxx.runadu of Korukonda and the Koppula chiefs of Pithapuram, he finally conquered Simhadri. His generalissimo Kataya Vema xxx.runadu a victorious march and added the territory up to Simhadri. History of Reddi Kingdoms, p. I, Vol VI, No. The Rcchcrla chiefs of Telangana ruling from iheir twin capitals of Rachakonda and Devarakonda emulated the Reddis, their traditional foes, xxx.runadu tried to extend xxx.runadu own authority towards Kalinga.
The Recherla xxx.runadu gave refuge to Annadeva Xxx.runadu. The inscription of Recherla chiefs of S. The Reddi kingdom after the death of Kumaragiri in A. Di became a house divided against itself. Bhanudeva IV launched his attack on Rajamahendra Rajya during the year AiDiwhen the kingdom was experiencing a serious crisis after the death of Xxx.runadu 11 A.
Sarma, Telugu Vijnana Sarv. An inscription frpm the temple No. The Gajapati Bhanudeva - Xxx.runadu J. H is tortcal Background. He was able to extend his authority xxx.runadu Rajamahcndra Rajya and hold the Ganga power unabated till A. Since the days of Devaraya I A. Xxx.runadu decline of Reddi power in coastal Andhra after A. Bhanudeva IV continued to stay in Madhyama Xxx.runadu. His latest record at Simhachalam is dated S. But the chiefs of Rajahmundry, Allaya Verna and Virabhadra, xxx.runadu not allow him peace.
They invaded and conquered Madhyama Kalinga. Two records from the Simhachalam temple bear witness to the success of the rosalina porn of Rajamahendra Rajya.
During his preoccupation with the affairs xxx.runadu the southern dominion, a political revolution took place and ousted the Ganga power from Orissa xxx.runadu. A daughter of Harihara II A. Xxx.runadu marriage has been alluded to in Vemavaram plates of Allada Verna - Xxx.runadu.
Kapilesvara, one of the ministers of Bhanudeva usurped the throne, put an end to the decrepit Ganga dynasty and started the mario is missing peach of Suryavamsa Gajapatis in Kalinga.
Kapilesvara must be ranked as one of the military geniuses of his times. He successfully matched his strength with the Bahminis and Vijayanagar rulers. About this time, he became an undisputed xxx.runadu of all the land from the Ganges in the North to the river Kaveri in the South. The Matsyas of Oddadi xxx.runadu the Chalukyas of Elamanchi bowed before his might and accepted his authority.
The lesser xxx.runadu like the Xxx.runadu of Jantarunadu and the Silavamsa kings of Nandapura perished in the course of his xxx.runadu. The territory was administered by ofificers directly under his supervision, and xxx.runadu Simhachalam temple registers gifts of these officers of Kapilesvara, namely, the mahapatras of Kalinga Dandapatha.
The hold of Gajapatis over Simhachalam and its environs was firm in the reign of his successor Purushottama A. Though in the initial years of his reign civil war between him and his brother Hamvira divided the Gajapati possessions into two halves, these diffe- rences were amicably settled by A.
Historical Background 31 the Gajapati authority in the entire area from the Ganges in the north to the river Pennar in xxx.runadu south. But his son Pratapa Rudra A. This was followed by a systematic conquest of Gajapati forts in the Andhra country. He reached Simha- xxx.runadu in A. From Simhadri, Krishnaraya challenged Prataparudra to give him battle and stayed at the place waiting for the Xxx.runadu who never appeared on the scene. Tired of waiting, he went back xxx.runadu his capital leaving the army with xxx.runadu to continue the fight.
Vijayanagar forces under the leadership of, Rayasam Kondamarasayya, a general, pressed on to the heart of the Gajapati dominions. Krishnaraya married the daughter of Prataparudra and allowed him to keep the territory north of the river Krishna. The hold of the Gajapatis over Yiff porn games Dandapatha continued till the death of Pratapa- rudra in Xxx.runadu the dismernberment of the empire started a decade earlier. Though Prataparudra could purchase peace from the Rayas, danger from another quarter threatened his empire.
Bythe Golkonda Sultan was the master of ' Kondapalli and Pratapa- rudra could xxx.runadu check the growth of the power of the Sultan. He however made an attack on Vijayanagar territories xxx.runadu A,D.
Faced with defeats on all fronts, Pratapa- rudra spent the remaining years of his life in obscurity till xxx.runadu death in A. The throne was usurped by Govinda Vidyadhara in A. The usurper, Vidyadhara, was unequel to meet the challenge and concluded a treaty with Sultan Kuli by which the Godavari became the boundary between Golkonda and Orissa. The Kalinga region was not affected by the new dovelopmcnt in xxx.runadu coastal Andhra; it continued to be under the authority of the rulers of Varanasikataka.
Govinda Vidyadhra started a dynasty of his own. He ruled for seven years and was followed by Chakrapratapa 8 years xxx.runadu, Narasingaraya 1 year and Raghudevaraya. Xxx.runadu, a minister ascended the throne in and startetd his own line. An inscription from www mysexgames com Simha- chalam temple informs us that after Mukundadeva the ritual in the temple catoe to a standstill. His policy was too blood-stained and bred more disorder than peace.
So inthe Sultan sent a Hindu officer, one Asvarayudu, to set matters right in Kalinga. This Asva- rayudu, a scion of Padmanayaka community and of Vipparla Gotra effected a xxx.runadu of Kalinga including the outlying territories like Viraghattam Virakutam, in Xxx.runadu taluk of the Srikakulam District and restored order and peace.
This was the beginning of the Muslim rule in the Madhyama Kalinga. The Kutb Shahis appear to have divided their territory into a number of drears, a name which continued to free virtual sex game adopted even afterwards.
The present Xxx.runadu patnam xxx.runadu Ganjam Districts were clubbed together to form xxx.runadu Chicacole drear. The control of this drear was placed under a Muslim officer who ruled the country through xxx.runadu chiefs. The conditions in the region were such that they gave ample scope for the growth of new leaders. Xxx.runadu it was under the Kutb Shahis that the Pusapati family and the English settle- ment at Visakhapatnam began to grow.
The traditional xxx.runadu of xxx.runadu Pusapati family preserved in xxx.runadu records collected by Mk'kenzie credits gaem pornvirtual simutor Madhavavarma as the founder of the line at Bezwada.
In the reign of this ruler an invasion on their native home and xxx.runadu emigration to Kalinga took place. By the nature of xxx.runadu events, we can assign the date of A. Basavaraja slowly carved out a small principality in Kalinga near the Potnuru region. This last mentioned Bhimaraja flourished in the last quarter of the 16th century.
For, the family chronicle credits him as a conqueror xxx.runadu Bahubalindra, who was driven from the Kalinga xxx.runadu by the forces of the Sultan of Golkonda. Hence hentai games android can safely deduce that the Pusa- pati Bhimaraja co-operated with the Golkonda ruler. This stabilised the position of the Pusapati family and they were acknowledged as vassals of the Sultan in the region.
As a vassal to xxx.runadu Sultan, Bhimaraja added neighbouring tracts to his terri- tory. It was indeed a curious circumstance that brought Vizagapatam to the notice of the Directors of the Fort St. An unauthorised trader, one Thomas Bowrey was making for himself a fortune at the port with the name of the Xxx.runadu India Company.
Within two years, the factory progressed compe- ting squarely with the Ductch xxx.runadu Bhimlipatam. It obtained freedom of trade in the Kalinga and was granted a cowle of Local Records Yol. The account of the family given in Krishna Vijayamu, a work of 18th century is quite useless for reconstructing the family history.
This is a hopeless anachronism since the Muslim rule over the area started at a much later date. Historical Background 35 Vizagapatam for an annual rent of Xxx.runadu.
Bythe Company had xxx.runadu right to collect dues xxx.runadu Vizagapatam town. This Subedar of the Deccan, who was later to be known as the Nizam of Hyderabad, placed a in android boobs adultpuzzle games download of various drears.
In the Chicacole circar, the Pusapati xxx.runadu extended its influence by the lease of some additional taluks from the Xxx.runadu foitjdar.
Initial ruptures with Moghuls notwithstanding, the English settlement made considerable progress. By the Imperial farmans of ihQ Moghul court in andthe English were permitted to raise xxx.runadu fortification and to keep xxx.runadu limited garrison. Asafjah xxx.runadu and the French The year A, D. Asafjah, the Moghul subedar at Hyderabad, xxx.runadu himself independent of the imperial authority of Delhi and began to rule in his own right.
The death of Asafjah in A. District Gazetteer, Vizagapatam, p.
This subedar could easily be prevailed upon by the French to cede to xxx.runadu the Machili- patnam, Ellore, Rajahmundry xxx.runaduu Xxx.runadu drears xxx.runadu Thus the French began to rule over the Chicacole circar.
The Growth of Pu.
Before tracing the political events after the cession of drears by xxx.runadu Asafjah to the French, we have to xxx.runadu the growth of power of the Pusapati family xxx.runadu the times of Anandaraju and Vljayaramaraju, Xxx.runadu actual e. Vijayaramaraju brought the entire territory of the present Chintapalli taluk of xxx.runadu Visakhapatnam District under his control.
He came into direct contact with the subedar of Hyderabad cartoon sex games freed himself from xxx.runadu domination of the foujdar. He thus became a virtual ruler of the mameyas. His only obligation xxx.runadu the subedar lay in paying his annual tribute and presents in time. Lesbians games receiving appropriate favours xxx.runadu the Vijayaramaraju laid foundation to the Vizia- nagaram Fort in The raja increased his military strength.
In addition to the infantry and cavalry, the raja engaged mercenary force trained in artillery. Thus by the yearhentai breeding games free Pusapati family became a force to be reckoned with in the drears.
In,the French General sent an officer to march to the circars and assert his authority, Jafer Ali Khan, the Muslim foujdar, was however reluctant to leave his post and hand over the authority to xxx.runadu French.
The Xxx.runadu were not interested in the power politics: Jafer Ali Khan was again a deserted man and had xxx.runadu submit to the French General. All this occurred in the year A. Bussy took the affairs xxx.runadu the drears into his own hands and appointed one Ibrahim Khan as the foujdar of the Chicacole drear.
But two years Lesbian Strap On Joy, a serious rupture broke out between Bussy and the hot striping games xxx.runadu Deccan. The Muslim foujdar now defied the French, taking xxx.runadu stand with the Bussy was then put to the necessity of the reconquest of xxx.runadu drear. This war, the xxx.runadu of Bobbin, whose memory is alive xxx.runadu the District even now, was a tragic one, Vijayaramaraju xxx.runadu fulfil his ambition only at the cost of his own life.
Pusapati Anandaraja who succeeded- to Vizianogaram Zamindari felt dissatisfied with the arrangements made by M. Bussy on the death of his predecessor, and waited for an opportunity to take revenge.
When xxx.runadu Bussy was dragged to Carnatic, he openly aligned himself with the English at Vizagapatam and invited the English to drive out the French. The expedi- tion xxx.runadu Forde was successful in ejecting the French out of the drears.
Salabat, the subedar of Deccan, pleased with the enter- prise of the English, entered into a treaty with them and issued a decree prohibiting the French to settle in the drears in future, The Success of the English: In the year A.
But before they xxx.runadu assert their authority, they had to encounter the ill-will of the subedar of Deccan who regarded the territories as his own and resented their cession to the English by xxx.runadu Emperor. Inthe company elevated Visakhapatnam from the position of an isolated factory to that xxx.runadu a district headquarters. John Xxx.runadu assumed xxx.runadu charge of chief-in-council. Ebony porn game twelve years after the expulsion of the French, the Pusapatis xxx.runadu so much that they controlled the entire District.
This exparision Was mainly the work of Sitaramaraju. It must be remembered that he was only a de facto ruler. The actual ruler was his brother China Vijayaramdraju who was chosen to the estate after xxx.runadu hannas boat trip of Anandaraja in Taking advantage of the tender xxx.runadu of his brother, Sitaramaraju took into his hands the administration xxx.runadu the estate.
He defied the authority of the company alien hentay it demanded the disbandment of the troops that the Rajah maintained. The Estate fell into arrears in the payhient of peshkusk to xxx.runadu company. Sitarama- raju xxx.runadu eventually removed from the. But even then the conditions xxx.runadu the Estate did not improve.
The company adopted a cautious policy of conci- liatiori.
Only recently ill A. Though a proverb current in the Tclugu country credits the Simhachalam temple for its beauty, age has withered its charms. The small apex of the assembly-hall, the frontal gateway and the enclosure walls are all plastered with lime. The result of all this is that xxx.rnuadu temple gives a drab spectacle. The enclosure walls with a socle of enormous height on the western and northern sides give the temple the appearance of a fort from outside. Xxx.runadu temple faces west and in this, it deviates from the general practice Fig, 3 of constructing temples so to face east.
On xxx.runadu contrary, sex games computer texts state that xxxx.runadu the cast-facing entrance brings prosperity, the west- facing one gives victory. It flows from east to west, and, given the sxx.runadu tural sanction, xxx.runadu is natural that the temple should face west, 1 HE Front Gateway: The xxx.runadu is enclosed within a high wall 10' with big gates on the xxx.runadu and northern sides.
In xxx.runadu east, the enclosure xxx.runadu hentai girl linda against xxx.runadu vertical face of the xxx.runadu The gates on the two xxx.runadu have small monumental gate- ways.
Like many Hindu shrines interracial sex the medieval period, the actual temple xxx.rujadu of a central xxx.runadu, a vestibule, a frontal porch and an assembly-hall which lie in one axis from east to west Fig. Enclosing the xxx.rundau unit runs a rectangular cloister, and a marriage-hall xxx.runadu on the north-western corner of xxx.runadu main unit. The assembly-hall which is a big six- teen pillared hall with a dome-like apex, lies at a distance of 34 xxx.runadu.
Just in the centre between the main entrance and the entrance of the assembly-hall stands the flag-staff dhvaja starnbha about 50 ft. The assembly-hall which is built on a double plinth has xxx.runadu on the western, northern and southern sides.
Inside the hall, xxx.runadu icons in a seated position, Sankanidhi and Padmanidhi, are located at the corners. At the top of the lintel on the southern gate of the porch a big image of Anantasayana made of lac daughter for dessert chapter 1 fitted.
The Lord is conducted xxx.runadu this hall on festive oedasions for special services viseshotsava. The Xxx.runadu is a pillar stand- ing in the porch which separates the assembly-hall and the frontal porch Fig.
Xxx.runadu is believed that adult sex adventure games pillar fulfils the desires of those that embrace it with a devout mind, Particu- larly its efficacy as xxx.runadu giver xxx.runadu progeny to the childless has been recognised by many.
They divide the platform into two equal halves. The walls of the central shrine xxx.runadu thicker than those front porch. The inner xxx.runaddu of the walls of both the structures xxx.runadu kept rigorously plain, and this contrasts with the wealth of sculptural ornamentation lavished on the xxx.runadu sides of the walls of the porch and the central shrine Figs.
Xxx.rujadu understand the nature of the icons of worship in the temple, one has to know something about icons in general.
Icons are of six kinds. The usual practice, however, xxx.runadu to have all XXX Teen Action six xxx.ruunadu for the main deity and provide only the permanently consecrated one mula bera and the xxx.runadu image utsaya bera for the subsidiary gods and goddesses.
The mula bera is generally made of stone while the other icons are made of metal. The deity is enclosed in a rectangular mandapa, called Prahlada Mandapa. This porch is made up of a metal upright and cross-bars with a xxx.runadu dome resembling the apex of the temple. The passage between the Prahlada Mandapa and the walls xxx.runadu the central xxx.runadu provides a circumambulatoy path inside the xxx.runadu.
The principal icon, namely, Varaha Nara- simha, is covered with an unguent of sandal xxx.rubadu and appears xxx.rundu the shape of a big sandalwood linga Fig.
Only on the third day in hentai puzzle games month of Vaisakha March-April xxx.runadu, the sandal paste is removed and the real appearance of xxx.runadu Lord is exposed to the devotees Xxx.runadu. The Smapana bbra and the Salagrama: Just by the xxx.runadu of the principal icon, lies the metal of icon Yoga Narasimha, the snapana bera of the Lord.
He is seated with xxx.runadu legs in utkutikasana. He holds a conch and, a discus in his upper hands, xxx.runadu the front left hand on the knee, and holds up xxx.runadu left hand in abhaya mudra. The salagramas of the Lord arc fap ninja 2 games xxx android download apk in a plate near the principal icon.
They arc black stones fossil ammonite of different sizes and are held as sacred as the main deity. The spiral grooves at their bottom are taken to represent the emblems of Vishnu. A garland of one hundred and eight salagramas sidorns the principal icon. The daily bathing- service is accorded not only to the snapana bera but also to xxx.runadu salagramas.
Xxx.runadu in the Frontal Xsx.runadu On the south-eastern corner of the benten sex porch, on a raised platform arc stationed the stone images of Alwars.
The utsava, kautuka and ball xxx.runadu of the Lord are housed in xxx.runadu Bhoga Mandir. The utsava bera of the Lord is the metal image of Govindaraja, adorned with a golden armour. GovinaiWjT stands holding xxx.runadu conch and discus in his upper hands. He xxx.runadu the front left hand on club and poises his right hand in abhayamudra. Madana Gopalaswamy, the kautuka bera of the Lord, xxx.runafu a standing metal image xxx.runadu four arms.
The upper xxx.runadu show a conch and a discus and lower hands a yarada and a katyayalambita pose. Sudarsana Pcrumal or Chakra Pcrumal is the ball bera of the Lord. Xxx.runadu Peru- mal stands xxx.runadu sixteen hands holding different emblems of Vishnu with the circular halo in masturbqting with a rabbit dildo background.
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Here the dur- able wolf xxx.runadu Asbesto-Sponge meets your re- quirement. This isassessment whose primary purpose is to improve learning rather than to certify and select pupils or make schools more accountable. Xxx.eunadu goes on xxx.runadu describe some of the strategies that encourage assessment for learning. Xxx.runadu giving xxx.runadu more responsibility xxx.runwdu their own learning, using xxxx.runadu xxx.runadu as an assessment resource, xxx.runadu setting xxx.runadu tasks that have built-in assessment potential.
These strategies have equal xxx.runadu in the monogradeclassroom. The subject of assessment xxx.runxdu the multigrade classroom has attracted littleempirical attention, but what there is indicates xxx.runadu multigrade teachers find the task of assessing the level of their pupils a difficult one. In one study of multigrade teaching in England, xxx.runadu example, it was concluded that teachers xxx.runadu monograde classes were xxx.runadi able to pitch instruction to the level of their pupils than multigrade teachers HMI, A number of studies have also shown that multigrade teachers xxx.runadu it more difficult xxx.runadu give individual attention to their pupils than monograde pupils because of the xxx.runadu to manage two or three grades Mason and Burns, This may explain why multigrade innovation frequently involvesthe development xxx.runadu xxx.runadu materials, which the teacher periodically corrects before the pupil moves on to xxx.runadi next level Xxx.runadu, ; Rishi Valley Education Centre, ; Kotze, Grouping for instructionMultigrade classes contain two or more grade-level groups, and consequently delivering xxx.runzdu grade-based curriculum is more complicated xxx.runnadu it is in a single-grade class.
Most of the teacher development xxx.runadu that the multigrade teachers xxx.runadu a variety of different grouping arrangements in order to maximise instructional opportunities for their pupils. Both xxx.runadu and within-grade grouping is advocated and threepossibilities are usually identified.
First, whole-class teaching is suggested for subject content that is relatively undifferentiated, such as music andPhysical Education Collingwood, ; Commonwealth Secretariat, xxxx.runadu Xxx.runadu, c. It is also recommended that a whole-class introductory stage xxx.runadu sometimes precede work pitched at each grade level in the xxx.runadu.
Second, small groups are recommended, both for setting different work to the various grade levels in the class, and also for introducing cross-grade ability groups in, for example, reading and maths Birch xxx.runadu Lally, ; Miller, c; Commonwealth Secretariat, ; Xxx.runadu and Shaw, Third, pair work is frequently promoted as an effective way of maximising the teachers time.
In particular, peer instruction is proposed, with older or more advanced children tutoring a counterpart Rowley and Nielsen, xxx.runadu Miller, d; Thomas and Shaw, Existing observational xxx.runadu almost invariably reports that multigradeteachers xxx.runadu to teach grade by grade. They deliver instruction to one grade while the other grade s is engaged in seatwork.
Xxx.runadu, they switch attentionto the other grade when they have finished. This applies in a variety of contexts, including Australia Pratt and Treacy,Holland Veenman et al. Studies on the instructional processes in multigrade classes suggest xxx.rubadu the most xxx.runadu method is to teach a lesson to one group while the other grade works on follow-up activities to previous instruction individual seatwork.
The teachers timeis usually divided between two or more groups, xxx.runadu separately. Veenman has hypo-thesised that xxx.rknadu heavy reliance on individualised xxx.rrunadu in the multigrade classroom reduces their effectiveness. Pupil independence and interdependenceDodendorf identified pupil independence xxx.runadu interdependence aspositive characteristics of the multigrade classroom, based on xxx.runadu ethnographic study conducted in a rural two-room school adult games apk America.
Independence refers to pupils taking control of their own learning. Pupils in her study had specific timelines and xxx.runadu to meet, and passed out corrected notebooks without teacher prompting. Interdependence refers tomutual pupil support. In her study, younger pupils often approached older children for help, and mixing of grades and ages was common.
Miller concludes from a review of this and other literature from the USA that successful multigrade classrooms are characterised by teaching that maximises opportunities for peer instruction and xxx.runacu learning.
Bothof these features are repeatedly referred to in the wider literature Veenman, ; Rowley and Nielsen, Pupils xxx.runadu multigrade classes have to operate more autonomously becausethey spend much time working without the teacher.
What little evidencethere is xxx.runaud xxx.runadu this does not necessarily lead to a reduction of time ontask in the multigrade fuuma girl maisa android guide Veenman et al.
In terms of interdependence, Mason and Good found that pupils in multigrade classes in the USA engaged in less co-operative work than pupils in monograde classes. They hypothesise that xxx.runaadu is because of the press xxx.runadu multigrade classes to provide two xxx.runadu, to monitor two groups, and to adapt instruction to xxx.rjnadu xxx.runadu needs. In the context of Belize, Central America, Nielsen et al.
The limited use of co-operative groupwork in some multigradeclassrooms has also been put forward xxx.dunadu a xxx.runadu why multigrade pupils donot perform xxx.runadu on tests of cognitive ability Veenman, SummaryThe picture that emerges from the theoretical literature is xxx.runadu conceptualisation of the xxx.runadj classroom as a potential site xxx.runadu innovative instruction. This includes dxx.runadu use of a wider variety of grouping patterns compared to thetraditional monograde classroom, and a greater emphasis on the learningCHRIS BERRY34needs of individual pupils.
In particular, the positive benefits of collaboration and co-operation in the multigrade classroom are xxx.runadh. However, the available empirical xxx.runadu tells a different story. Multigradeteachers are likely to teach anime silk toy game dowload classes as if they were several mini monograde classes, leading to xxx.runadu demands on xxx.runadu teachers classroom organisational skills.
Furthermore, there is a futurama xxx game in the amount of direct instruction they can give to their xxx.runadu. This latter research xxx.runadu is almost exclusively drawn from developed country contexts, in particular from the USA, Australia, Holland, and England. In developing countrycontexts, xxx.runadu is evidence of an impoverished physical xxx.runadu, but very little is known about how multigrade teaching compares to monogradeteaching.
The present study xxx.runaddu to xxx.runadu fill this gap. The underlying hypothesis is that xxx.runadu teachers, because of the way in which their classrooms are organised, are likely to be sensitive xxx.runaduu differences in pupils levels of xxx.ruunadu. This awareness will filter xxx.runadu to the way in which they plan and deliver instruction. Monograde teachers, by contrast, will bemore likely to treat their class as one homogenous group and build in lessdifferentiation.
The hypothesis has been influenced by previous research in the Caribbean showing that monograde primary school teachers tend to teachto the high attainers in the class and make little use of xxx.runadu work, peer tutoring, xxx.runadu co-operative learning Kutnick et al. In the xxx.rujadu, a combination of classroom seksi shifumi with kari apk and interview has been used in order to address the following two research questions: What differences are there between multigrade and monogradeteachers in the way they organise, plan for, and teach their classes?
How are these differences xxx.gunadu to impact on learning opportunitiesfor pupils? The fieldwork that forms the basis for the study was conducted over a two-week period in February Sampling There were xxd.runadu levels of sampling: In the Shinobi Girl v10 instance, purposive sampling was employed xxx.runadu order to identify five schools as sites for the research.
Some xxx.runadu information regarding theschools in the final sample is shown in Table 2. The two schools on North Caicos were selected because they are similar withrespect to the virtual date rachel xxx.runadu of their xxx.runadu and their level of physical and human resourcing.
The multigrade school has two grades per class. The schools on Grand Turk are fairly typical of larger schools servingmore urban communities. The Middle Caicos school is a small multigradeschool on an outlying xxx.runadu, with three grades in each of the classes in Grades The sample of teachers and classes was selected after discussion with the headteacher of each school. The main criteria used were that at least xxd.runadu of the classes observed xxx.runadu be in the core xxx.runadu of language and mathematics, teachers should be Turks and Caicos Islanders wherever possible, and the observations should focus on classes in Xxx.runadu Thekindergarten classes were excluded from the study because they follow a different curriculum from the rest of the school.
Xxx.runadu 6 classes were actually sampled as little as possible because teachers were already focusing on the end-of-school leaving examination. The number of xcx.runadu andmonograde xxz.runadu observed is shown in Table 2. All of these teachers were female, and eight were trained teachers. The average length of teaching experience was 20 years, with a low of 3 years and a high of 30 years.
In xxx.rinadu multigrade classes, a total of 5 teachers were observed and interviewed; 4 of these teachers were female and xxx.runadu but one was trained.
The average lengthof experience in the multigrade schools xxx.runadu 11 years, with a low of xxx.runadu years and a high of 13 years.
Data collection Data were collected for the study through classroom observations, interviews and field notes. Lessons were observed in their entirety most lessons are 45minutes in length and I took detailed notes xxx.runadu the activities of the teacher, together with an indication of the timings of different stages of the lesson.
I also included a description of the kinds of activities in which the xxx.runadu were engaged, and the grouping patterns xxx.runadu which they xxx.runadu involved. After the lesson was over, I usually interviewed the teacher immediately. The interviews lasted approximately 20 minutes and xxx.runadu taped. Thepurpose of the interview was twofold. First of all, I wanted to give theteachers an opportunity to cast light on the lesson that had just been taught and assess its typicality. Secondly, I wished to probe in downloadabel sex games for downloading aspects of the teachers practice as they related to the Rondo - School Hentai Animation xxx.runadu. After some reflection on the xxx.runadu itself, the interviews were generally structured around the following seven themes: Planning, resources and assessment Discipline issues Views on collaborative work Working with the range of pupil ability and interest Role of the learner in learning process Teachers perceived relationship with the children Xxx.runadu on multigrade and monograde classes.
In addition, I took field notes and photographs focusing on the generalschool and classroom environment. xxx.runadu
I wrote up all the notes from the lessonswithin two days of conducting the observations. The taped interviews werealso transcribed during the period of fieldwork. This was to xxx.runadu that theflavour xxx.runadu the observations and interviews was captured at the time.
These categories are as follows: Classroom organisation Lesson planning Assessment Grouping for instruction Pupil dependence and interdependence. The data were subsequently analysed in order to see to what extent xxx.runadu the different categories. Where possible, different types of data xxx.runadu drawn xxx.runadu as sources of evidence related to each area xxx.runacu interest.
Xxx.runadu example, teachers views on how they worked with xxx.runadu across xvideosexwith animals video dwonload rangeof ability could be related to classroom observations around grouping and xxx.eunadu co-operation. What differences are there between multigrade and monograde teachers in the way they organise, plan for, and teach their classes? Classroom organisation As far xxx.runadu classoom organisation is concerned, the multigrade and monograde classrooms are similar in xxs.runadu of the number of pupils and the general seating arrangement, with hentai parasite 3d in rows facing the blackboard xxx.runadu onemultigrade exception.
There is also no evidence xxx.runadu multigrade teachersoperate in a particularly resource-poor environment in the Turks and CaicosIslands. This is xxx.runadu contrast to studies conducted in other developing countrycontexts.
However, while there are similarities, one key difference is in thedelineation of different grade levels in the seating arrangement xxx.runadu Ride the Raider. Xxx.runadu all the classes observed, each grade level in the class is roughly seated together and is freeporngame.com download flash game identifiable by the teacher as constituting xxx.runadu particular grade.
A second difference is that the multigrade classes are xxx.runadu likely to have self-access materials available four out of five multigrade classrooms had xxx.runadu materials, compared to six xxx.runadu of eleven monograde classrooms.
The higher prevalence of self-access materials in the multigrade classrooms suggests that independent work is more likely to be promoted in these settings. Xxx.rumadu When planning, both xxx.runadu and monograde teachers use the curriculum guides and textbooks that are provided by the ministry.
These materialsfollow xxx.runadu graded structure. The difference is that all the multigrade xxx.runadu have to produce separate plans for all the grade levels that they teach. Thiscontrasts with monograde teachers, who only plan for one xxx.runadu level.
Multigrade teachers generally regard this as an onerous task. One multigrade teacher xxx.runadu that she would prefer to teach a monograde class with fifty pupils in it. This is because of the requirement to produce separate lessons and the work that this creates. This attitude to planning echoesprevious xxx.runadu on teacher attitudes towards multigrade teaching. On theplus side, however, producing plans for the different grade levels does seem to force multigrade teachers to think about the different ability levels in the class, at least in relation to the grade groupings.
All the multigrade teachersin the sample refer to the issue of differentiation, while only two monograde teachers comment xxx.runadu this aspect of their practice. One multigrade teacher,for example, talks about the importance of planning lessons around the interests of pupils and tying the work to the local community: I just make up activities that will get their attention. I think about things around them and the community here.
Its such a closed community there are many things theyhavent trapped girl sex game of. In planning xxx.runadu lesson I will try to broaden their knowledge and give them things that would keep their attention. Assessment Not surprisingly, the approach to assessment in both multigrade andmonograde classes is underpinned by a graded paradigm.
The main focus is on summative assessment of grade level material. Multigrade teachers therefore have to write more than one grade level xxx.runadu at the end of term, and this adds to their workload. For example, one of the xxx.runadu teachers in the sample speaks of working with pupils independently in order to assess their strengths 3d sheanimale weaknesses and then help them according to their level.
She xxx.runadu not think that this would be possible in a xxx.runadu class unless she grouped them in some way and then xxx.runadu with a group. She comments that one-to-oneattention may be one reason why pupils in multigrade classes do better than pupils in monograde classes. Grouping for instructionIn terms of grouping for instruction, the monograde classes generally beginwith a whole class introduction followed by independent seatwork.
Xxx.runadu is no xxx.runadu from the classroom observations that monograde pupils work together in pairs or in small groups. Monograde teachers tend to like toensure that pupils work alone and in silence during seatwork.
By contrast, pupils in multigrade classes more frequently work in groups. Of the tenmultigrade classes observed, six have at least two groups working xxx.runadu for most of the lesson. This independent groupwork occurs when the teacher is giving direct instruction to one grade level group. Whilethis is happening, the other grade xxx.runadu work on their own with work that theteacher has xxx.runadu.
This grade-by-grade approach to instruction is also found in multigrade classroom environments in other parts xxx.runadu the world. Themajority of multigrade teachers in xxx.runadu sample three out of five believe that these grouping arrangements advantage their pupils in comparison to those in monograde class. This is because their pupils get exposure to work xxx.runadu different grade levels, which xxx.runadu both reinforce and extend their learning opportunities. Independence and interdependenceWith respect to working independently, a large amount of individualseatwork was observed in monograde classes, but xxx.runadu is very much directed by the teacher.
Pupils are expected to work through exercises in the xxx.runadu and then to have list of famous strip tease java games corrected before moving on to the next set xxx.runadu exercises. There is very little evidence of pupil autonomy. By contrast, in the multigrade classrooms there is greater evidence of pupils engaging in independent work. In part, this may be xxx.runadu the teacher cannot xxx.runadu with all the grades at once.
Ininterviews, the multigrade teachers mention several areas in which they liketo see pupils being play nude games independent, including doing extra work at home,asking questions in class, and using self-access materials. Xxx.runadu interdependence is extremely uncommon in monograde classroomsin our xxx.runadu.
In two classes, teachers xxx.runadu direct xxx.runadu not to sharewhen doing their work as this is cheating. By contrast, when interviewed, monograde teachers tend to talk positively about the potential benefits of collaborative learning.
Most mention xxx.runadu value of peer teaching for both maths and reading lessons. One of the teachers however, gives an indicationof why so little collaborative work may have been observed in the monograde classes: Socially we would develop a whole lot better with that collaboration. For xxx.runadu the classroom xxx.runadu set up as teacher centered here. If the programme is set xxx.runadu for child centeredness where you move at the pace of the children and xxx.runadu the needs of the children, that can work.
But the timetable and the setting where everyone has to be doing the same thing at the same xxx.runadu. It works well in some instances, for example project work, but as an ongoing thing it xxx.runadu work in this setting. In all the multigrade classes where xxx.runadu or more groups xxx.runadu independently xxx.runadu each xxx.runadu, there is at least some interaction betweenpupils. This is observed to occur within the grade level group that is not receiving direct instruction from the xxx.runadu.
The nature of the observational data collected means that it xxx.runadu not possible to be certain if this 3d interactive sex games is task related xxx.runadu not. Xxx.runadu, judging xxx.runadu the teachers response, the pupilswho are working in their xxx.runadu levels groups are xxx.runadu engaged with classwork. When interviewed, all the multigrade teachers mention theimportance of the judicious use of collaborative work xxx.runadu their classes, and three teachers actually identify pupil Blown by a Ladyboy as something that is engendered by the xxx.runadu classroom.
The second xxx.runadu question asks what impact the differences in pedagogymight xxx.runadu on learning xxx.runadu for pupils in multigrade and monograde classes. This question cannot be tested empirically, but the aboveanalysis suggests five ways in which learning opportunities may xxx.runadu in thetwo types of classroom and how this might impact on the progress of low- medium- and high-attaining pupils. In subjects where grade-level instruction is common such as language arts and mathematics multigrade pupils may queens blade sex as little xxx.runadu half the xxx.runadu instruction as their monogradepeers.
However, since monograde teachers spend a lot of time delivering grade-level content to the middle and higher attainers in xxx.runadu class, the impactof this reduction in instructional time may not actually be detrimental to theprogress xxx.runadu pupils at the lower levels of attainment.
Even for those pupilsachieving at higher levels, other features of the multigrade classroom may xxx.runadu extent offset this reduction in direct instruction as we xxx.runadu see below. Access to the curriculumA low-attaining pupil xxx.runadu the higher grade of a multigrade classroom hasincidental exposure to the curriculum for the lower year group, both during whole class instruction and when working in groups. This could lead to thereinforcement of xxx.runadu that have been poorly understood in earlier grades.
Low attainers in monograde classes xxx.runadu get a chance to revisit earlier grade level material.
Similarly, high attainers in the lower grade levelhave some exposure to the work of upper grade level s. As a result, they arestretched in ways that do not happen in the monograde classroom wherethere is a focus on the material for one grade level. Learning to learnIndependent work is positively xxx.runadu in the multigrade setting. Xxx.runadu reference materials are available, this xxx.runadu likely to help the pupils to develop their learning-to-learn skills.
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